Volume 33 - Article 36 | Pages 1035-1046 Author has provided data and code for replicating results

The effects of wealth, occupation, and immigration on epidemic mortality from selected infectious diseases and epidemics in Holyoke township, Massachusetts, 1850−1912

By Susan Hautaniemi Leonard, Christopher Robinson, Alan C. Swedlund, Douglas L. Anderton

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Date received:21 Apr 2015
Date published:12 Nov 2015
Word count:1938
Keywords:epidemic mortality, immigration, industrial town, New England, Poisson regression, socio-economic effects
Additional files:readme.33-36 (text file, 1 kB)
 demographic-research.33-36 (zip file, 473 kB)


Background: Previous research suggests individual-level socioeconomic circumstances and resources may be especially salient influences on mortality within the broader context of social, economic, and environmental factors affecting urban 19th century mortality.

Objective: We sought to test individual-level socioeconomic effects on mortality from infectious and often epidemic diseases in the context of an emerging New England industrial mill town.

Methods: We analyze mortality data from comprehensive death records and a sample of death records linked to census data, for an emergent industrial New England town, to analyze infectious mortality and model socioeconomic effects using Poisson rate regression.

Results: Despite our expectations that individual resources might be especially salient in the harsh mortality setting of a crowded, rapidly growing, emergent, industrial mill town with high levels of impoverishment, infectious mortality was not significantly lowered by individual socio-economic status or resources.

Author's Affiliation

Susan Hautaniemi Leonard - University of Michigan, United States of America [Email]
Christopher Robinson - University of South Carolina, United States of America [Email]
Alan C. Swedlund - University of Massachusetts Amherst, United States of America [Email]
Douglas L. Anderton - University of South Carolina, United States of America [Email]

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