Volume 30 - Article 68 | Pages 1849-1864
Spatial inequalities in infant survival at an early stage of the longevity revolution: A pan-European view across 5000+ regions and localities in 1910
|Date received:||05 Aug 2013|
|Date published:||12 Jun 2014|
|Keywords:||early 20th century, Europe, human development, infant mortality, longevity revolution, spatial inequalities|
Background: Spatial inequalities in human development are of great concern to international organisations and national governments. Demographic indicators like the infant mortality rate are important measures for determining these inequalities. Using demographic indicators over long time periods at relatively high levels of geographical detail, we can examine the long-term continuities and changes in spatial inequalities.
Objective: This paper presents the initial outcomes of a larger project that aims to analyse spatial variation in infant survival across Europe over the last 100 years. In this paper, we focus on spatial disparities in infant survival in 1910. At that time, the longevity revolution was still at an early stage. We look at general spatial variation patterns within and across countries, and discuss some of the challenges related to the comparativeness of the data.
Methods: We link official infant mortality data from more than 5,000 European regions and localities for the period around 1910 to a European historical GIS of administrative boundaries. The data are analysed using descriptive spatial analysis techniques.
Results: In 1910, a number of countries in northern and western Europe led the longevity revolution in Europe, with the area of low infant mortality also extending into the northwestern parts of the German Empire. Other areas with low infant mortality levels included the Belgian region of Wallonia, most parts of Switzerland, as well as central and south-western France. In eastern and southern Europe, we find significant variation within and across countries, which might stem in part from data quality problems.
Sebastian Klüsener - Max-Planck-Institut für Demografische Forschung, Germany
Isabelle Devos - Ghent University, Belgium
Peter Ekamper - Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut (NIDI), Netherlands
Ian Gregory - Lancaster University, United Kingdom
Siegfried Gruber - Max-Planck-Institut für Demografische Forschung, Germany
Jordi Martí-Henneberg - Universitat de Lleida, Spain
Frans van Poppel - Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut (NIDI), Netherlands
Luís Espinha da Silveira - Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Arne Solli - Universitetet i Bergen, Norway
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